Peripheral stigmata for abdominal disease

While performing the General Examination for a patient with abdominal complain you should emphasis in searching for these signs.

Peripheral stigmata for abdominal disease

Hand

  1. Clubbing
  2. Koilonychias ‘spoon-shaped nail’ (iron-deficiency anemia)
  3. Leukonychia ‘white nails’ (liver disease – fungal infection)
  4. Liver flap (uncompensated liver disease)
  5. Palmer erthema (liver disease)

Eyes

  1. Pallor (anemia)
  2. Jaundice

Mouth

  1. Hepatic foetor
  2. Pallor (anemia)
  3. Ulcer
  4. Pigmentation (peutz-jeghars)

Neck

Supraclavicular L.N.s

Upper trunk

  1. Gynecomastia
  2. Spider naevi
  3. Scratch marks
  4. Pulse

Lower limb

Edema