Scrotal examination



Plan for examination of the scrotum
Scrotal neck Junction between corrugated & smooth skin

At root of penis

At the pubic tubercle

Tunica Normally not felt except there is fluid If Minimal fluid it is felt by benching

If large amount of fluid it is felt as swelling

Testis Testicular sensation


Cord Thickness

Vas felt like tough structure

Inguinal region Inguinal lymph nodes (that drain scrotal skin)
Penis Shaft for Hypospadias


DRE Prostate

Seminal vesicles

Abdomen Para-aortic lymph nodes

Maldescended testis

Neck Left  supraclavicular LNs ( Verchow’s sign)


Aim of examination in case of scrotal swelling is to answer 4 questions

Can you get above the swelling?

Can you identify the testis and the epididymis?

Is the swelling is translucent?

Is the swelling is tender?

and these are examples for how you can comment on your examination of scrotum.


  1. “Enlarged right side of the scrotum”
  2. Look to back of the scrotum and penis
  3. “No signs of inflammation (scars, sinuses or dilated veins)”
  4. “No cough impulse and not reducible (بيرجع؟)”
  5. “I can get above the swelling so it is pure scrotal swelling”
  6. Feel the swelling (relation to testis and epidydimis)
  7. Transillumination


  1. Examine in supine position after standing
  2. Inspection normal
  3. Feel bag of worms
  4. May feel cough impulse or thrill
  5. Separate from testis
  6. Can get above it
  7. No transillumination

Continue reading “Scrotal examination”

Breast Examination

Breast examination

Exposure: All of the top half of the trunk, Compare both breasts and Start with the normal side (MUST ASK FOR A CHAPERONE)


Position (Patient sitting 90˚ then raise arms above her head then hands on her hip)

Breast Size, Symmetry, Contour, 6 areas (4 quadrants, Tail and Inframammary surface)
Skin Dimpling, Puckering, Peau d’orange, Cancer encrust, Discoloration, Nodule and Ulceration or SCAR
Nipple and areolae Destruction, Depression (retraction or inversion), Discoloration, Displacement, Deviation, Discharge and Duplication
Axillae and arms
Supraclavicular fossae


Position (Patient sitting 45˚)
By Flat of fingers, Bimanual examination and Ask the patient to find the lump if you did not find it
Breast ‘6 areas’ (4 quadrants, Tail and Inframammary surface)


Skin and color
Special signs

Relations to the surroundings


Relation to skin
  • Freely mobile
  • Tethered
  • Fixed
Relation to muscles Hands by sides

Hands press in sides

Relation to chest wall
Other swellings
Solid, fluid or gas Consistence


Milk each quadrant towards the nipple to know which duct is the source of the discharge
Axillae “axillary L.N.s” (anterior, medial, posterior, lateral and apical)
Supraclavicular fossae

General examination

Abdomen Hepatomegaly, Ascites and Nodule in Douglas pouch
Lumbar spine
  • Percussion
  • Movements
  • Straight leg raising and Ankle jerks

Continue reading “Breast Examination”

Facial nerve Examination


Facial nerve palsy


  1. General: Loss of facial expressions
  2. Eyelids: on blinking, the affected side closes after the normal eyelid (Bell’s sign – the eyeballs moves vertically upwards when the eye is closed)
  3. Eyes: widened palpebral fissures
  4. Nasolabial folds: flattened on the affected side
  5. Mouth: the affected side droops and moves less when talking


  1. Occipitofrontalis: “ارفع حواجبك
  2. Orbicularis oculi: “زر على عينيك
  3. Orbicularis oris: “ورينى سنانك
  4. Buccinators: “انفخ

Complete examination

  1. Test taste (chorda tempani)
  2. Test hearing (hyperacusis N. to stapedius)
  3. Cause (history – scar)

Parotid Gland Examination


Parotid Gland


Site Parotid region
Shape Parotid shape if diffuse parotid enlargement
Skin and color Scar, fistula
Special signs Relation to chewing food


Relations to the surroundings:


Relation to skin Freely mobile, Tethered or Fixed
Relation to muscles Masseter “جز على سنانك” and Sternomastoid
Relation to nerves Facial nerve examination
Relation to artery Superficial temporal artery pulse
Ear Elevation of ear lobule
Other swellings
Reducibility ?
Solid, fluid or gas
  • Consistence
  • Fluctuation

Open the mouth to assess

  • Ability to open
  • What happen to the lump?
  • Parotid lump usually diminish in size due to tension of parotid facsia
  • Dryness of the mouth
  • Swellings of submandibular glands and its duct (bimanual examination)
  • Parotid duct
  • Deep part of the parotid gland

Continue reading “Parotid Gland Examination”

Thyroid Examination


Thyroid Examination

General examination for thyroid status
  1. Increased sweating
  2. Palmer erythema
  3. Pulse and water hummer pulse (Tachycardia, AF, Any arrhythmia except HB and Sleeping pulse >90 bpm)
  4. Fine tremors (by a sheet of paper on out stretched hands with palms facing downwards)
  5. Thyroid acropachy
  6. Onycholysis
  7. Areas of vitilligo

(stabilize the head)

  1. Lid retraction (front – Dalrymple’s sign)
  2. Lack of forehead wrinkling on looking upwards without moving the head (front – Joffroy’s sign)
  3. Lid lag (front – Von Graefe’s sign)
  4. Defective convergence (front – Moebius’s sign)
  5. Ophthalmoplegia (front)
  6. Exophthalmos (back)
  7. Loss of hair of outer third of eyebrows
Other systemic manifestations
  1. Pretibial myxoedema
  2. Proximal myopathy
  3. Signs of heart failure
  4. Gynecomastia

Thyroid Examination

Local examination



Position Patient: Neck extended

Doctor: In front of the patient

Patient: Slightly flexed

Doctor: Front then behind

Exposure All head till clavicle All head till clavicle
Comment on


  • lump (as any swelling)
  • Scar of previous operation (Healing or Complication)

Relation to surrounding

Sternomastoid Muscle contraction
  • Tilt the patient’s head to the same side
  • Pinch the muscle
  • Ask him to swallow
Skin Ask patient to swallow Ask patient to swallow
Carotid artery
  • Normal site
  • Equal volume
  • Displacement
  • Weak pulse
  • ‘Berry’s sign’
Trachea Move up and down

While standing the patient put fingers on gland and ask him to swallow will feel the gland and the larynx go up

Put fingers to stop descent of the gland while the larynx goes down

Manubrium Is lower edge seen? Is lower edge felt?
Neck L.N.s
Neuro-Vascular Bundle
Percussion Resonant or dull?
Auscultation Upper pole of the gland

To hear systolic bruit if gland is highly vascular as in toxic goiter

Continue reading “Thyroid Examination”

Neck examination


Neck examination

Lymph nodes examination (up-and-down technique)
  1. Palpate from the chin backwards to below the ears (submental – submandibular – parotid glands – pre-auricular)
  2. Move your hand behind the ears (post-auricular) and palpate DOWN the anterior border of sternomastoid to the clavicle (anterior triangle including jugulodigastric)
  3. Move laterally along the clavicle (supraclavicular – infraclavicular) then UP the posterior border of sternomastoid (posterior triangle)
  4. Finish by palpating back of the scalp (occipital nodes)
+ Face and scalp examination (thyroid examination if the swelling in front of the neck)

+ Area above the umbilicus (breast examination in females)

+ ENT examination searching for primary site of infection or neoplasia

+ Abdominal examination (hapatomegaly and splenomegaly) and the rest of lymphoreticular system (other groups of lymph nodes)


image source:

Continue reading “Neck examination”

Examination of Oral Cavity

This is a simplified plan to examine the mouth and the tongue..

The Mouth and the tongue


Anterior 2/3
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Papillae
  • No fissures
  • Congenital tie
  • Short ferenulum
  • Ankyloglossia
  • Congenital fissures
  • Geographical tongue

Corda tempani (facial nerve)


Lingual nerve (trigeminal nerve)


Hypoglossal nerve

Paralyzed tongue deviate to the paralyzed side

Posterior 1/3 Not accessible except mirror or under anaesthesia
Lump (as any swelling)
Ulcer (as any ulcer)

Do not forget examination of cervical lymph nodes


Follow the general scheme (on this page)  and use the following set of symptoms in the part of “Other symptoms Relation to the main complaint

  • Swelling
  • Ulcer
  • Pain
  • Causes of chronic superficial glossitis that predispose malignancy (six Ss)
    • Syphilis, Smoking, Sharp tooth, Spirits, Spices and Sepsis
  • Sequelae of malignancy of the tongue


Local (posterior 2/3)



Lymph nodes enlargement


Lingual artery


Lingual nerve

Pain referred to ear

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

Hoarseness of voice





Aspiration pneumonia





Causes of ulceration of the tongue

(Traumatic, Neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, autoimmune,..)

  • Aphthous ulcer
  • Trauma (dental)
  • Non-specific glossitis
  • Chancre
  • Gumma
  • TB
  • Carcinoma
  • Lichen planus
  • Herpetic ulcers
Causes of macroglossia
  • Multiple haemangiomata
  • Multiple lymphangiomata
  • Plexiform neurofibromatosis
  • Amyloid infiltration
  • Infiltrating carcinoma
  • Muscle hypertrophy (cretins)
Causes of swelling of the jaw
  • Infection
    • Alveolar (dental) abscess
    • Acute osteomyelitis
    • Actinomycosis
  • Cysts (odontomes)
    • Dental cyst
    • Dentigerous cyst
    • Other odontogenic cysts and cystic tumors
  • Neoplasm
    • Benign
      • Fibrous dysplasia
      • Giant cell granuloma
      • Odontogenic tumors
    • Locally invasive
      • Adamantinoma
    • Malignant
      • Osteogenic sarcoma
      • Malignant lymphoma (Burkitt’s tumor)
      • Secondary tumors (by direct invasion or blood spread)
  • Epulides
    • Fibrous epulis
    • Granulomatous epulis
    • Myeloid epulis
    • Sarcomatous epulis
    • Carcinomatous epulis
Dental Cyst vs. Dentigerous Cyst

Dental cyst

Dentigerous cyst

Adult Young age
In relation to carious tooth In relation to missing tooth
Maxilla Mandible
Incisors and canines Premolars and molars
Unilocular Tooth inside